Concerns about inequality are high among scholars, policy makers and general public, but income inequality in Europe over the last decade has not increased, and inequality of opportunity is still relatively high. However, overall poverty has increased, with those in the poorest income decile having lost share of total disposable income. This study looks in particular at the role of automation and job polarization in relation to these trends. It also examines how differences of geography, health and education reveal large differentials in basic services, well-being drivers and economic opportunities more generally across Europe and within Member States. The literature and the evidence reported in this note call for action to enhance competitiveness, upgrade skills and reinforcing equality of opportunities.