©stockpexel/ Shutterstock
  • The rising cost of living together with climate and environmental concerns top the list of challenges respondents in Luxembourg see for their country.
  • Three-quarters of respondents believe the shift to a climate-neutral economy can only happen if inequalities are addressed at the same time.
  • Most believe the government should provide financial compensation to affected countries for climate change they did not contribute to.
  • Two-thirds favour eliminating subsidies and tax breaks for the aviation sector and all companies that rely heavily on fossil fuels.

The European Investment Bank (EIB) today launched the sixth edition of its Climate Survey. These are some of the most striking results of this annual survey conducted in August and September 2023. Running since 2018, the EIB Climate Survey offers insights into the climate change-related views of people in major economies around the world, with more than 30 000 respondents in the European Union, the United States, China, India, Japan, the United Kingdom, UAE, Canada and South Korea. The EIB is the lending arm of the European Union and the world’s largest multilateral lender for climate action projects.

After another challenging year[1] marked not only by inflation but also by record heatwaves and droughts, people in Luxembourg have become more acutely aware of the profound impact of climate change and the need for immediate action in Luxembourg and around the world, according to the results of the EIB Climate Survey. While the rising cost of living is considered by far the number one challenge[2] for respondents in Luxembourg (79% of respondents place it in the top three concerns for their country, 11 points above the EU average), climate change impacts and environmental degradation come second, with 55% considering them a major concern (5 points above the EU average).

Demand for a just transition at home and in affected countries

The financial cost and implications of the green transition are likely to affect personal budgets, with lower-income households hit the hardest.

With income inequalities ranked as the third most significant major challenge by respondents, most people in Luxembourg are calling for fair policies to address the climate emergency. 77% (compared to 68% on average in the European Union) say the transition to a low-carbon economy can only happen if social and economic inequalities are addressed at the same time.

However, only 40% of respondents say they are confident in the government’s ability to carry out such a just climate transition.

On the question of compensation for developing countries to help them deal with the impacts of climate change — expected to be a central issue at the 2023 UN Climate Change Conference in Dubai (COP28) — most people in Luxembourg are in favour of extending aid beyond their borders to support countries most vulnerable to climate change and ensure a global just transition to a climate-neutral and resilient future. 58% of respondents (close to the EU average of 60%, in line with Germany but 10 points below France, for instance) agree that the country should financially compensate affected countries to help them fight climate change.


Taxes to support a just transition

Survey results show that 53% of respondents in Luxembourg (6 points below the EU average of 59%) would be willing to pay more income tax to help lower-income households cope with the costs of a green transition. 43% would agree to pay an extra 1-2% of their income and 10% would agree to an extra 5-10%.

Most respondents in Luxembourg said they would also be in favour of other kinds of climate-related taxes. For example, 73% (1 point below the EU average) said they would favour a fossil fuel tax reform to eliminate subsidies and tax breaks for the aviation sector and other industries that rely heavily on fossil fuels.

Comments to be attributed to EIB Vice-President Kris Peeters:

“People in Luxembourg recognise that a successful transition to a climate-neutral world goes hand in hand with addressing social and economic inequalities at home and globally. At the European Investment Bank, we are fully committed to supporting a just transition that leaves no one behind. Solidarity and actionable measures are more important now than ever.”

[1] The survey was conducted in Luxembourg between 7 August and 4 September 2023

[2] Respondents had to select the three challenges they consider the biggest for their country from a shuffled list of ten challenges: Increased cost of living, unemployment, climate change, environmental degradation, political instability, income inequalities, access to healthcare, large-scale migrations, cyberattacks, and terrorism.

Background information

About the EIB Climate Survey

The European Investment Bank (EIB) has now completed the sixth annual EIB Climate Survey, a thorough assessment of how people feel about climate change. Conducted in partnership with the market research firm BVA, the sixth edition of the EIB Climate Survey aims to inform the broader debate on attitudes and expectations in terms of climate action. More than 30 000 respondents participated in the survey from 7 August to 4 September 2023, with a representative panel of people aged 15 and above for each of the 35 countries polled (EU 27, the United States, China, the United Kingdom, India, Japan, South Korea, Canada and UAE).

About the European Investment Bank

The European Investment Bank (EIB) is the long-term lending institution of the European Union owned by its Member States. It is active in more than 160 countries and makes long-term finance available for sound investment in order to contribute towards EU policy goals. 

  • In 2019, the EIB adopted an updated energy lending policy ending financing to any unabated fossil fuel energy projects, including natural gas. The EIB was the first multilateral development bank to do this. 
  • In 2021, the EIB also became the first multilateral development bank to align its financial activities with the Paris Agreement. 
  • Through its Climate Bank Roadmap, the EIB Group aims to support €1 trillion of investment in climate action and environmental sustainability through the critical decade 2021-2030. 
  • It also made a commitment to increase investment in climate action and environmental sustainability to more than 50% of its annual lending by 2025 (last year that goal was exceeded with a figure of 58%).

EIB Global is the EIB Group’s specialised arm dedicated to operations outside the European Union and is a key partner of the EU Global Gateway strategy. It aims to support at least €100 billion of investment by the end of 2027, around one-third of the overall target of the Global Gateway. Within Team Europe, EIB Global fosters strong, focused partnerships alongside fellow development finance institutions and civil society. EIB Global brings the Group closer to local communities, companies and institutions through its offices across the world.

About BVA Xsight

BVA Xsight is a pioneer in market research and consulting. With their sector-specific knowledge and skills, its 400 experts analyse the unique facets of individuals' lives. They provide in-depth and actionable insights, enhancing decision-making and organisational performance.

BVA Xsight operates both in France and internationally, partnering with public and private organisations. Recognised with multiple awards for its innovation capabilities, BVA Xsight stands out for its teams' commitment and passion for the profession.

Founded in France in 1970, BVA Xsight is a mission-driven company and is part of the international BVA Group.

Find out more about BVA Xsight: www.bva.fr