The findings, interpretations and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Investment Bank
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The sequencing of the human genome at the beginning of this millennium marked a new era in biomedicine. Genome sequencing has become so fast and cheap that it can be routinely applied to individual patients leading to the identification of genetic variants that are on the one hand key drivers for disease development, and on the other hand the cause for differential response to therapies. Moreover, nanotechnology and robotics have created innovative therapeutic tools and powerful diagnostic techniques, such as the analysis of all human proteins (proteomics) and the processing of high-resolution imaging data of patient tissues that help significantly diagnosis by reliably detecting first signs of disease. These technologies look at various aspects of disease changes over time and provide a more holistic picture of a patient’s individual state. As a consequence of technological advances and the genome evolution in medicine we can now provide better tailored diagnostics, increased therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effects to an individual patient. Such ‘precision medicine’ approaches promote advances in healthcare and prolong lifespan in general population.